Prostatitis in men

healthy prostate and prostatitis

Prostatitis in men belongs to the group of andrological pathologies (exclusively male), urogenital. The disease occurs in the form of acute or chronic inflammation. This is the most common urological disease today. Previously, it was believed to manifest only at the age of 45-65 years, now more and more often doctors diagnose "prostate" in young people aged 20-30 years. The disease has become much younger.

The nature of the prostate lesion depends on the sexual habit of the person.

  1. It could theoretically be the defeat of the prostate gland in boys, before their puberty, but inflammation of the underdeveloped gland is not considered an independent disease.
  2. In men who are sexually active, prostatitis often continues as an acute inflammation.
  3. Gland pathology, in adults and the elderly, can appear in the form of three independent diseases (chronic prostatitis, adenoma - benign hyperplasia, adenocarcinoma - malignant hyperplasia).
  4. In people undergoing castration (chemical, physical, radiation), the gland is atrophied.

The prostate gland (prostate) is the accessory gland of the male genital area. It is located at the junction of the urethra and ejaculatory ducts. The importance of the gland before puberty is poorly understood. In a mature man, the prostate gland:

  • produces a secret that dilutes sperm, ensures the vitality of sperm in a woman's genital tract;
  • produces prostaglandins, substances that stimulate the increased blood supply to the penis before the onset of an erection, along with the testicles, participates in the production of the hormone testosterone;
  • ensures rapid evacuation (release) of sperm from the urethra and participates in the formation of orgasm;
  • by means of reflex mechanisms prevents the entry of urine into the sperm during sexual arousal, participates in the complex mechanism of erection.
The prostate is a vulnerable organ for disease-causing agents. It is inevitably involved in the pathology of the walls of the urethra, bladder, vessels. A powerful stream of blood, lymph, circulating through the system of branched vessels of the damaged gland, provokes the phenomena of stagnation, edema of the organ, exacerbates the pathology. The gland is well irritated, the injury is accompanied by pain.

What men need to know about prostatitis

Prostatitis is an inflammatory disease of the prostate gland (prostate), most often caused by an infectious agent entering the prostate itself from the urethra, bladder and adjacent rectum. However, an infection in itself does not mean the development of a disease, for which, as they say, "a favorable combination of circumstances" is necessary.

What are the factors that predispose to the appearance of prostatitis:

  1. Prolonged sedentary work and a sedentary lifestyle. The risk group includes drivers, programmers, and anyone who spends their work day without getting up from their chair to walk and warm up.
  2. Regular constipation in the form of constipation.
  3. Severe or recurrent hypothermia of the whole organism.
  4. Overly active sex life or prolonged abstinence. Both are not at all beneficial for the normal functioning of the prostate gland.
  5. Excessive overeating, spicy food and alcohol abuse, constant stress.

The prostate is a very small organ 3 cm long and 4 cm wide. It weighs only 20-25 grams. However, the secretion of the prostate has bactericidal properties, therefore, the inflammatory process in the gland can develop only in the presence of stagnation in this organ, when its secretion loses its properties.

How does prostatitis manifest in men

There are chronic and acute forms of prostatitis:

  • Symptoms of acute prostatitis are characterized by severe inflammation in the prostate area. In this case, the patient has a strong fever (body temperature rises to 38-39 degrees), pain in the groin and perineum, painful urination and bowel movements.
  • Chronic prostatitis bothers a man less, so he may not immediately pay attention to the characteristic symptoms of the disease. The patient's body temperature occasionally rises to 37 degrees, sometimes he is bothered by uncomfortable sensations when going to the toilet, a little mucus or pus is released from the urethra. Such discharge is one of the typical signs of chronic prostatitis.
Signs of prostatitis in men

There are six (precursor) signs of prostatitis - dysuria syndrome. Use as a clinical marker is conditional. However, the presence of two of the six symptoms is a reason to consult a urologist.

  1. The urine stream slowly falls down or its range is less than 20 cm.
  2. Difficulty urinating, point by point.
  3. Pain when urinating.
  4. Interruption, separation, spraying of the aircraft, duration of the process.
  5. The feeling of not emptying the bladder completely.
  6. Frequent urination at night.

It is strictly forbidden to draw clinical conclusions when these signs are detected. Prostatitis has a complex pathogenesis, with the involvement of various mechanisms in it. It is impossible to treat the disease by focusing on the general clinical symptoms. Contact a urologist to determine the symptoms, the nature of the injury, the stage of the disease, the appointment of treatment. Diagnosis and treatment are performed taking into account the organs and systems involved in pathogenesis. In some cases, it is necessary to consult a venereologist, surgeon, oncologist.

Symptoms of prostatitis in men

Prostatitis can appear in the form of acute and chronic inflammation. Acute forms develop as catarrhal, follicular, parenchymal inflammation. Manifestations of chronic prostatitis are associated with an accompanying disease.

Symptoms of prostatitis detected by clinical methods and functional tests. The following symptoms are of the utmost importance for recognizing the nature of the pathology, the causes and the mechanisms of the body's protective reactions.

  • Frequent urination with prostate.In a healthy person, the maximum number of urges to urinate does not exceed 10-12 times a day, usually 4-5 times. The daily volume of urine in a healthy adult is 1000-2000 ml. The volume of urine, in which desire occurs, is 120-170 ml, the accumulation of urine over 350 ml causes a strong desire to empty the bladder. The products of prostatitis inflammation constantly irritate the receptors on the walls of the urinary organs, resulting in urination:
    • Frequent urination (pollakiuria), while the daily volume of urine has not increased;
    • Urination in small portions, the products of inflammation send false signals to the receptors for filling a half-empty bladder, after emptying the feeling of its fullness remains;
    • Painful urination (stranguria) due to narrowing of the urethra by an inflamed prostate;
    • Difficulty urinating due to compression of the urethra by the inflamed gland, sometimes prostatitis is accompanied by the inability to empty the bladder (ischuria);
    • Urination at night (nocturia), irritated bladder walls give a constant signal for urine production.
    • Temperature with prostate.Characterized by an increase in body temperature to subfebrile and febrile values. High fever accompanies purulent prostatitis in the early stages of septic shock. In the late stage of septic shock, on the contrary, a low temperature (hypothermia) is characteristic of 35-36 ° C. Low temperature is dangerous for humans due to the tendency of blood platelets to diffuse intravascular coagulation (DIC syndrome). ). The prognosis of prostatitis complicated by sepsis in the presence of diffuse intravascular coagulation syndrome is cautious or unfavorable.
    • Blood in urine with prostate.The symptom of hematuria (blood in the urine) is a rare but very dangerous symptom. Persistent bleeding is difficult to stop. There are several causes of prostate hematuria, including:
      • purulent fusion of the gland with a part of the blood vessel and piercing of the vessel in the ureter;
      • accidental trauma during instrumental examinations of the genitourinary organs;
      • complicated prostatitis by hyperplasia, most often of a malignant form.
      • Pain syndrome. Complicated prostatitis is associated with pain outside urination. Sometimes the pain occurs intermittently, such as during a bowel movement. The cause of pain is the constant irritation of the gland by the products of inflammation. Deaf (painful) pain is often seen in the perineum and anus.

      Laboratory tests that confirm the symptoms of prostatitis. They are used to clarify the presence of inflammation, to determine the severity of the inflammatory and septic process.

      • Complete blood count. Indicators confirming prostatitis are: an increase in the number of leukocytes, a shift in the leukogram towards an increase in the number of knife cells, an increase in ESR.
      • Urine analysis. Detects latent pyuria (pus in urine) and bacteriuria (bacterial contamination) in the first part of urine. Use the three-cup method to detect latent pus and bacteria at the beginning, middle or end of urination. Repeatedly, at a frequency of several days, bacteriological examination of the urine is performed to determine the change in the species of bacterial flora.
      • Blood transplant reservoir. The method is indicated for the symptoms of progressive sepsis accompanied by debilitating (rapid) fever.
      • The study of the cellular connection of immunity in the prostate adds to the understanding of the nature of pathogenesis, to predict the likelihood of developing sepsis

      Instrumental methods used to clarify the symptoms of prostatitis. The following methods are of diagnostic value.

      • Transrectal ultrasound method (through the rectum) with ultrasound (TRUS). Its high diagnostic value is noticed. The method has contraindications associated with the prohibition of gland massage, at certain stages of the disease.
      • X-rays from the bladder. Choose projections that are appropriate for examining the prostate. Before X-rays, the urograph is injected into the bladder, an inert radiopaque substance in the body.
      • Pierced prostate biopsies have strictly limited indications for prostatitis.

      Causes of prostatitis in men

      There are several groups of causes of prostatitis, including:

      1. Complications of a man's past illnesses (PPP infections, colds, inflammation of the pelvic organs, complicated by staphylococcus and other bacterial infections, viral, fungal agents, especially against the background of reduced immunity andgeneral body), chronic gynecological infections in a woman who is a sexual partner.
      2. Urethral reflux. Violation of the prostate's ability to prevent urine from flowing back into the reproductive ducts is called urethral reflux. The result is bacterial implantation of the prostate. Urethral reflux is a consequence of improper catheterization as well as previous inflammation of the urethra. In this case, urethrorrhagia occurs - a pathological increase in the lumen of the urethra. Urethral reflux - vesiculoseminal, bacterial culture is combined with the formation of calculi (stones) in the prostate and ejaculatory ducts.
      3. Violation of the rhythm of sexual activity, including the absence or excess of sex, the regular delay of ejaculation.
      4. Venous blood clot in the urogenital organs of the male pelvis is a consequence of a sedentary lifestyle (hemorrhoids, sexual disorders, other reasons);
      5. Hormonal imbalance associated with insufficient production of male hormones by the sex glands, resulting in a general weakening of skeletal and smooth muscle tone, erectile erectile function and other disorders.

      Classification of prostatitis

      Distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial prostatitis:

      1. Bacterial prostatitis is caused by pathogenic microorganisms that enter the prostate gland from the outside. These include streptococci, staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Proteus and others. Many bacteria are normal flora in our body, but under certain conditions they enter the prostate and cause inflammation. Prostatitis can also develop as a result of sexually transmitted diseases such as chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, gardnerellosis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis.
      2. The non-infectious prostatitis group includes:
        • Congestive prostatitis. Caused by overload in the small pelvis. Incomplete ejaculation, sexual excesses, prolonged abstinence, interrupted intercourse - all this contributes to venous stasis in the pelvic organs.
        • Sclerotic prostates. It is characterized by a decrease in the size and functions of the prostate gland, the compression of its tissues as a result of the death of prostate cells by replacing them with sclerotic tissue. One of the reasons for the development of this form of the disease is frequent constipation, taking certain medications and multiple infections. Unfortunately, such prostatitis cannot be treated.
        • Calculated prostate. The result of the development of calculous prostatitis is the presence of phosphate and oxalate stones in the gland. Reaching a large size, they cause a sharp pain in the urethra. The method of treatment consists in dispersing the stones formed.
        • Prostatitis prostatopotik. This disease causes chronic pelvic pain, but its etiology is not fully understood. It is believed to be caused by a reverse leakage of secretion, perineum muscle damage, bladder neck pathology and psychological factors.
        • Atypical format. In the atypical form, the patient may complain of pain in the legs, lower back, and sacrum, which is unusual for the characteristic symptoms of prostatitis. The outcome of treatment depends on the duration of the disease, the activity of inflammatory processes and the presence of complications.

      If you do not treat prostatitis, then in its neglected form, it leads to decreased potency, infertility, depression, debilitating pain in the perineum and other complications.

      Why is prostatitis dangerous, the consequences of prostatitis

      The consequences depend on age, the state of the immune system, the presence of bad habits. So, in people of older age group, with weakened immunity, with a history of alcoholism, drug addiction, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, the consequences of the disease are more severe.

      • Impact of prostatitis on potency.A damaged gland, with decompensation of functional activity, reduces the production of substances involved in the formation of the erection of the male genital organ. The consequence of prostatitis is a slow release of seminal fluid during sexual intercourse, a decrease in the fullness of sensations during sexual intercourse, in advanced forms of erectile dysfunction.
      • Impact of prostatitis on conception. A damaged prostate dramatically reduces the activity of producing a high quality secretion, which is necessary to maintain sperm activity in a woman's birth canal. The secret of the inflamed prostate gland, entering a woman's birth canal during sexual intercourse, reacts with the immune rejection of the female body, the development of gynecological diseases and the impossibility of conception.
      • Prostatitis causes damage inside the gland and body. Complicated inflammation by the microflora increases the risk of prostate abscess. Abscess formation - the purulent fusion of a portion of the gland parenchyma with the formation of a capsule around the focus. The disease with the formation of mineralized calculi in the cavity is a consequence of the prostate complicated by the reflux of the damaged prostate. The consequence of prostatitis is also: acute isuria, urolithiasis, kidney failure, inflammation of the genitourinary organs and other diseases.

      Is it possible to have sex with a prostate

      It has been proven that intimate life dysrhythmia is one of the causes of glandular inflammation. Regular ejaculation with moderate frequency has a positive effect on the pathogenesis of prostatitis with clinical and moderate clinical manifestations of prostatitis. Some therapeutic manipulations and stages of the disease include a temporary ban on sex. For detailed recommendations, consult your doctor. Have sex with the prostate, observe moderation and security of intimate life.

      Is prostatitis sexually transmitted? Prostatitis is a purely male disease that does not have a specific viral, bacterial, fungal origin. Meanwhile, inflammation of the prostate poses a risk to gynecological health. Sperm, which contains products of inflammation, entering the female genitals, against the background of a decrease in the protective barriers of the birth canal, is a real threat to the conception and retention of the fetus. A healthy lifestyle, reliable male contraception is a simple way to protect sexual partners from mutual problems.

      Is it possible to recover from prostatitis once and for all

      Most of those men who have already undergone prostate treatment more than once are interested in a question - is it possible to get rid of this unpleasant disease forever. According to experts, the effectiveness of treatment mainly depends on the presence and severity of irreversible consequences that have occurred in the prostate. These can be marks, stones, calcifications.

      To stop the further development of the inflammatory process in the early stages, only a timely visit to a doctor can. In this case, no irreversible complications develop in the prostate and there is the possibility of a complete cure. When areas of sclerotic tissue are already formed - scars, there are calcifications and small stones that can not be eliminated in any way, then, most likely, recurrent inflammation can occur. This is chronic prostatitis.

      In addition to treatment, an important factor in overcoming this disease is the degree to which the patient is willing to change his previous lifestyle - irregular sex life and constant sitting in a chair. If he does not want such changes, then we can confidently say that soon the inflammatory process will return again. It is with the patient's unwillingness to exclude these negative factors from his life that the idea that prostatitis is incurable is linked.

      Duration, treatment regimen is determined by the doctor, based on the results of physical, laboratory and instrumental studies. Antibacterial drugs are at the heart of prostate therapy. The use of vitamins, physiotherapeutic procedures, anti-inflammatory, pain relievers, antibiotics appears.

      Diet for prostate

      Compliance with diet, use of a certain group of products:

      • reduces pain,
      • improves blood and lymph microcirculation in glandular vessels,
      • strengthens the body's protective functions,
      • normalizes bowel function,
      • reduces nocturnal urine production.

      Products for prostatitis. Outdated:

      1. Strong coffee, spicy vessels - increase blood flow to the gland, stimulate pain;
      2. Fat, fatty meat, eggs, flour - increase the deposition of cholesterol in the walls of capillaries, reduces the microcirculation of blood flow to the gland;
      3. Alcoholic beverages - lower immunity;
      4. Foods high in fiber, salty, spicy foods - change bowel movements;
      5. A large amount of fluid (in the evening), salty foods, smoked (during illness) - increase the volume of fluid, keep it in the body.

      It is advisable to include in the diet: vegetable salads seasoned with olive oil, vegetables and fruits grown in the region of residence, natural juices, nuts, dried fruits, lean cooked meats. A set of products for prostatitis can be checked with a nutritionist.

      Preventive measures

      Prevention is based on simple rules, they are easy to follow.

      • Take long walks regularly (this style of walking is more physiological);
      • Eat well, lead a healthy lifestyle;
      • Use male contraception.

      To avoid the development of prostatitis and its complications, you should immediately contact a urologist for any disease of the genitals. It is also not necessary to wait for symptoms to appear, but at least once a year to see a doctor yourself. At a medical facility, you will undergo an examination and you will know for sure that your genital health is in order.

      Do not delay to visit a urologist and those who suffer from constipation, abuse alcohol, spicy and smoked foods, those who are not actively involved in sports and who have a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Due to the high risk of the disease, such people should undergo a mandatory examination, even if there is no indication of this.

      As you know, men do not have to go to the doctors and when they are already impatient, it turns out that the disease has taken a chronic course. But the course of treatment could have ended much earlier. Now, with chronic prostatitis, it will take at least 1-2 months to be treated.