Urethritis: symptoms, treatment

Urethritis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the urethra (the urethra). The disease may occur in infectious or non-infectious form.

urethritis

Causes of

Treatment of the urethritis begins with the identification of its causes. Only after the cause has been established, the doctor can select appropriate treatment for a particular patient.

Urethritis can have infectious origin. The causative agents of the disease entering the body through sexual contact or sharing items of personal hygiene.

Non-infectious origin of the disease suggests that the urethritis was not received through sexual contact. The cause of the disease can be well enough handled medical tools, injury of the urethra, allergic reactions, etc.

The symptoms of urethritis

One of the first symptoms of urethritis painful urination. Call to a specialist is advisable in this stage, as it is likely to prevent the spread of the inflammation. If you continue to ignore the unpleasant sensation that occurs during urination, the following symptom becomes download purulent. In some cases, it can observe the inflammation of the meatus.

Specific characteristics:

  • In total urethritis is the inflammation of the entire urethra. The symptoms can be similar to symptoms of prostatitis.
  • Acute urethritis can be determined by the presence of acute pain and burning sensation when urinating. The lips of the urethra are of a bright red colour, there is inflammation. Strong exposure discharge from the urethra.
  • After the acute forms of the disease may occur in acute. Discharge from the urethra can be significantly reduced or disappear altogether. Urine with urethritis acute becomes transparent. Can be purulent thread.
  • In the absence of timely treatment of the urethritis may become chronic. The patients complain of neurotic phenomena. Slight discharge from the urethra.

Urethritis is sometimes confused with prostatitis. Difficulty and painful urination is characteristic for both diseases. It is for this reason that self-diagnosis is unacceptable. Also, do not have any independent action in the treatment of the disease.

Patients who have decided to see a specialist, it is often very difficult to make a choice and decides that the doctor is better to go: the venereologist or the urologist. In venereal diseases it refers to those who have casual sex are not uncommon. If the patient has a permanent sexual partner or when no partner, that can begin to address to the urologist.

types of urethritis

Types of urethritis

Urethritis is divided into two groups-infectious and non-communicable. The latter can be caused by two groups of micro-organisms: non-specific (E. coli, Staphylococcus, etc.) and specific (causing sexually transmitted diseases). We consider the main types of infectious diseases, urethritis.

Bacterial urethritis

In contact with nonspecific pathogenic bacterial flora in the urethra (in most cases this happens during sex with a casual partner), you may have a bacterial urethritis. The disease also frequently occurs after long-term use of a catheter of the bladder or transurethral endoscopic manipulation. Bacterial urethritis is divided into:

  • Primary. Can have acute and chronic forms. Acute bacterial urethritis usually occurs without overt symptoms and is not strictly incubation period. From the urethra is allocated pus and mucus. There is pain in emptying the bladder, burning and itching in the urethra. Possible slight swelling in the external opening and the membrane mucosa of the urethra. Blood in the semen and disorders of ejaculation can occur in cases where the process that involves a seed tuber into the urethra later.
  • Secondary. Can develop in the presence of an inflammatory process local with any infectious disease, for example, pneumonia. Secondary non-specific urethritis in the majority of cases, is prolonged and latency. Adult patients may complain of pain when urinating. Slight Muco-purulent discharge in the morning. Children, unlike adults, rarely complain of painful urination. There is redness and agglutination of the lips of the external opening of the urethra.

In the treatment of bacterial infections urethritis it is necessary to consider the sensitivity of the pathogen to a particular drug, as well as the pathogenesis and etiology. If urethritis in parallel with cystitis, the doctor will prescribe a comprehensive treatment that includes physical therapy.

If the total of therapy is not sufficiently effective, can be assigned to local treatment, such as instillation into the urethra of solutions of collargol, silver, etc.

Gonorrheal urethritis

The causative agent of the disease was the gonococci enter the body during sexual intercourse. In addition, infection can occur through common goods, for example, towel.

The treatment of gonorrheal urethritis is carried out only under the supervision of a doctor. Recently treated with cephalosporins, as it was noted that the gonococcus has become less susceptible to penicillin. After the treatment, it is necessary to test the patient for the presence in the organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The patient is the so-called provocation, which repeats after a certain period of time. Gonorrheal urethritis leaves no immunity. Therefore, there is the possibility of re-infection.

Urethritis caused by fungi

This type of urethritis is very rare. The disease can occur due to injury of the urethra of yeast and fungi. In the majority of cases, the appearance of the disease is the result of prolonged antibacterial therapy. In addition, this type of urethritis can be transmitted through sexual contact. Type of disease can occur almost asymptomatic. Possible whitish discharge from the urethra, itching and burning. If the diagnosis of the patient takes antibiotics, the doctor will cancel them and replace with drugs antifungals.

viral urethritis

Viral urethritis

Most often, the disease contributes to virus conjunctivitis, which develops in the urethra. The virus tends to multiply in the epithelial cells of the cervix, the vagina, urethra and conjunctiva. When that happens, the inflammation of the organ.

Transmission of the infection is possible through sexual contact. For this type of disease is usually slow. Viral urethritis may be accompanied by joint damage. In the treatment you may experience some difficulties. The broad spectrum of antibiotics is usually combined with the hormone corticosteroid.

Trichomonas urethritis

This type of urethritis is distinguished by a white, foamy discharge from the urethra. There may be a slight itching. The development of the disease begins 5-15 days after infection. Chronic Trichomonas urethritis may be complicated by prostatitis of the same class. The complication is observed in 15-20% of cases. To avoid re-infection and treatment for both partners. If necessary, you can repeat the course.

Urethritis in women

Contrary to the popular belief that only male urethritis is a disease, the disease often can be found in women. However, given the fact that the urethra in the body of the woman is much shorter than the male urethra inflammation in women may be asymptomatic and painless. It is easier to detect gonococcal urethritis, because it is accompanied by acute pain and a discharge of purulent from the urethra.

If the patient is not directed to the specialist in time, she begins a cystitis, that is to say, inflammation of the bladder. The symptoms of both diseases are so similar that the urethritis can be taken for cystitis, because the main symptom becomes frequent need to urinate. Causes of urethritis in women may be:

  • sexual infections;
  • hypothermia;
  • errors in the diet;
  • gynaecological diseases.

Less common Causes of urethritis include:

  • The medical intervention. To perform cystoscopy and catheterization are not competent enough your doctor can damage the wall of the urethra or introduce infection, which contributes to the development of the disease.
  • The exhibition.
  • Urolithiasis. When formed in the kidney crystals and sand to pass through the urethra, they damage the walls of the urethra.

Urethritis in women as well as men, has complications. In addition to the cystitis, one of the main complications is to get pyelonephritis. In addition, chronic urethritis in the absence of necessary treatment can cause the deformation of the urethra, its decline. Deformation complicates the process of urination.

Treatment of urethritis in women involves 3 main stages:

  • The first step is to remove the inflammation of the urethra;
  • The second step is to restore the normal flora vagina, particularly if the urethritis was caused by sex the infection;
  • The third stage is to take all the necessary measures to restore the immune system. Increasing the resistance makes the body less susceptible to infections.
urethritis in women

Prevention of urethritis in women has its own characteristics:

  • it is necessary to solve problems with chair – constipation and diarrhea;
  • you should avoid the combination of anal and vaginal sex, and the sex casual
  • visit to the gynecologist should be regular, regardless of the presence of symptoms.

Diagnosis of urethritis

In the first stage, the students have to identify the cause of the urethritis. You need to find pathogens. However, if from the urethra not pus, to establish the cause of the disease will not be easy. To extract the pus used thermal, chemical and physical provocative tests. The easiest is considered a chemical method: the patient takes the medicine, followed by many pus. Thermal and mechanical methods more difficult and painful. To get the pus, the membrane mucosa of the urethra irritate the thin metal probe (a physical method) or thermal effects (thermal method).

There are more modern methods of detection of causative agents of the disease. In many medical centers, polymerase chain reaction. This research methodology involves the selection of suitable biological fluids of the patient DNA of the pathogen urethritis.

The patients never injury of organs pelvic may designate an x-ray of the urethra. With the help of the x-ray contrast can detect defects in the walls of the urethra. In addition, the research is widely used urethroscopy, in which the urethra is injected, a special optical apparatus.

Treatment of the urethritis

In the majority of cases, for the treatment of the urethritis antibiotics are used. To achieve the best results, it is necessary to consider the data of the antibiogram. This means that before the patient appoint antibiotics, the doctor must determine how the high sensitivity of the patient to the medication. Selection of antibiotics a few days after the patient is diagnosed. During these days, the patient should not be left without medical assistance. The patient may temporarily prescribe antibiotics of penicillin group, that is to say, broad-spectrum antibiotics. Currently widely used semisynthetic penicillins. This group of drugs has a greater influence on the pathogen, at the same time, be resistant to a biological environment of man. If this group of drugs prove ineffective, the patient can prescribe more effective antibiotics. Perhaps the appointment of agents, antiseptics for washing the urethra. Lavage should only be carried out by the specialist.

In the treatment for the urethritis, the patient should follow a diet ban foods that increase the secretion of the membrane lining of the urethra. These products primarily include spicy condiments and spices.

It should be remembered that the rehabilitation (psychological) after the urethritis do not want that the patient and his partner. Often, the detection of urethritis partners without knowing it, they start accusing the other of betrayal. After the patient was diagnosed to visit the doctor can be together. The specialist will explain to the partner of the patient, the presence of inflammation of the urethra not evidence of the infidelity of men.

measures for the prevention and treatment of urethritis

Measures of prevention

The probability of the appearance of the disease can be minimized if you follow some simple rules.

  • In the first place, you should avoid casual relationships.
  • The personal hygiene reduces the likelihood of infection.
  • The rejection of bad habits: smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Preventive supervision of an urologist.
  • Diet: do not abuse of spicy, vinegar, salt food.
  • The timely treatment of infectious diseases of the genitourinary system.
  • To avoid overcooling.

The greatest risk of infection before the men who suffer from inflammation of the pancreas, intestine, gall bladder and some other internal organs. The probability of infecting those who frequently suffer with tonsillitis.

03.04.2019