The inflammatory process in the urethra – urethritis, often strikes young men. The disease does not exceed independently, they should be treated. But it is important to differentiate urethritis infectious and symptoms in men, symptoms of non-infectious nature. The result of the treatment depends on the correct and timely diagnosis.
Accepted classification and staging
The difference of urethritis in men symptoms and treatment because of the type of pathogen, the stage of the process, the underlying medical conditions. Based on the cause of the inflammation, there are two groups.
Infectious urethritis caused by certain types of microorganisms:
- the bacteria
- the tuber Bacillus
Noncommunicable urethritis, the incidence of which is not related to the introduction of pathogens:
- allergic reaction
- the violation of the membrane mucosa after
- medical procedures or injuries
- violation of the circulation of the blood in the pelvis, the congestion
- obstruction of the exit of the urine
For the duration of the course there are acute and chronic processes, each of which has its own stages of development and clinical picture.
Acute urethritis in men occurs in three stages:
- The latent period is characterized by the absence of symptoms, can last from 2 to 3 days up to a month.
- The period of pronounced clinical.
- Recovery or chronic illness and the transition in the shape slob.
Chronic process has two distinct stages:
- Relapse – exacerbation of symptoms, occurs under the influence of factors, adverse.
- Sending hidden inflammation is characterized by prolonged period of blurred manifestations.
Causes and factors of support
The symptoms of urethritis in men and the causes are closely related.
- Infections transmitted by sexual contact. The main part of the disease and the infection by the gonococcus, chlamydia and Trichomonas.
- Conventionally-pathogenic microflora, normally present in everyone, but suppressed by the immune system. These include: Escherichia coli, Candida, staphylococci, streptococci.
Non-infectious causes of the diseases associated with stagnation of urine, the lack of cleaning of the urinary canal in a natural way, the violation of the integrity of the mucosa.
- The formation of kidney stones.
- Manipulations associated with the examination of the urinary tract: cystoscopy, catheterization.
- Allergic processes.
- Tumours of education.
In addition to these causes of urethritis in men, there are factors that weaken the immune system, and promotes the rapid growth of pathogenic flora:
- prolonged hypothermia;
- poor nutrition, abuse salty and spicy foods, vitamin deficiencies;
- physical inactivity, stagnation of the blood in the pelvis;
- the total decrease in the protection of the forces in the face of excessive physical and mental stress;
- neglect of personal hygiene;
- the influence of stimuli chemical.
In rare cases, the disease develops when the penetration of infection from a chronic focus with a current blood or lymph.
The most common symptoms of the acute period
Regardless of the causative agent of the symptoms of urethritis in men have many things in common. That can be produced in full or limited to few demonstrations, to be present continuously or episodically. Normally the inflammatory process is limited to the local symptoms. There are a burning sensation and pain when urinating, frequency of urination increases, while the urine becomes muddy colour. In some cases, to detect blood clots.
In addition to the General direction of the signs, there are symptoms specific for a given pathogen. Often differ in the nature and intensity of the selections. Consider how inflammation occurs in the urethra of different etiologies.
It starts badly, develops quickly. Gonorrhea is extreme pain in the time urination, intense, inflammation, hyperemia, edema of the head of the penis. Due to the large number of pus, the urine becomes muddy colour. For gonococcal infections it is characterized by a yellow discharge with blood.
It is characterized by a constant itching unbearable, difficulty with emptying the bladder. The process is pain and burning sensation. From urethra appear low gray-white discharge, and semen detected traces of blood.
Chlamydial urethritis in men is often asymptomatic, causing a high risk of its transition in the form of chronic. Burning and pain in the short term and little pronounced. The allocation of colorless or with a small amount of pus, scanty, passing quickly.
Candida lose refers to the non-specific inflammation and occurs when a decrease in the protective forces of the body. It is characterized strongest pruritus, burning sensation, swelling and redness of the header. The allocation of thick, cheese, white or pinkish-white color.
Viral urethritis is characterized by weakly pronounced relapse. With the weakening of immunity can cause rashes specific around the external opening of the urethra. Exacerbation may be accompanied by General malaise, pain in the joints.
It has a great variation in the incubation period, the first symptoms can be noticed after 2 – 3 months after infection. Seal – purulent discharge from the urethra, and the other symptoms are poorly expressed, of course.
In this form of inflammation of the assignment does not exist, but after the injury there may be traces of blood in the urine. When stagnation occurs violation of urination, in the inflammation of allergic – inflammation of the law of the strongest.
Manifestations of the chronic form of the disease
What is urethritis in males in the chronic form? It is indolent, almost asymptomatic inflammatory process, in which the flow of the disease in the absence of necessary treatment. Can last for years, alternating with periods of calm and exacerbation.
Relapses usually occur after an illness or prolonged physical and emotional stress. The symptoms resemble an acute phase with pain, disorders of urination and discharge from the urethral canal, but in a more benign form. In the absence of adequate therapy, the manifestations gradually disappear, and there is a phase of calm.
In the period of remission of the symptoms disappear at all, or remember you a slight burning sensation, occasional small download. The General condition does not suffer, the urinary function is not in danger. In spite of the clinic, a chronic form of dangerous complications.
Acute inflammation of the urethra can occur in isolation, but in the absence of treatment in the infectious process, the surrounding organs and tissues. In men, urethritis often is:
- inflammation of the foreskin;
- with the retraction in the process of the gland of the prostate;
- with orchitis – infection of the testicles;
- the inflammation of the bladder.
Combined cystitis and urethritis in men have a single causative agent in 90% of cases, this is E. coli, and infections transmitted by sexual contact. Aggravating factors include: hypothermia, prolonged stress, severe viral disease and the weakening of the immune system forces.
Cystitis acute in men manifests itself in the following way:
- pain and cramps when emptying;
- hyperemia and edema of the mucosa;
- difficulty to urinate;
- purulent and bloody discharge from the urethra;
- discomfort in the lower part of the abdomen, pain pain.
After the identification of the pathogen, combined urethritis and cystitis are treated in the same way. The therapy must be brought to an end, because both diseases are prone to chronic process.
Before deciding how to treat the urethritis in men, it is necessary to conduct a study to identify the pathogen and determine its sensitivity to drugs. Diagnosis begins with history taking and visual inspection.
Take the total of the blood test to determine the intensity of inflammation the number of leukocytes. Of urine to rent in the morning – the first emptying after a night's sleep. Urine analysis allows us to identify the agent infectious and to carry out analysis of sensitivity to antibiotics. Discharge from the urethra in men is also subject to bacteriological culture and microscopic examination. All laboratory tests are conducted on the background of complete exclusion of antibiotics. In some cases, may require instrumental examination, ultrasound of pelvic organs, radiography, endoscopy of the bladder and the urethra.
Methods of treatment
Treatment of urethritis in men did not require hospitalization and successfully be performed on an outpatient basis. The choice of drugs depends on the form of the disease and the outcome of the cultures. The main group used the therapy – antibiotics. Methods of introduction vary and are agreed between the doctor and the patient. The medications can be taken in pill form, it is administered by injection, intramuscular or intravenous, or delivered directly to the lesion with the catheter. Consider the drugs for the treatment of urethritis in men, according to the identified pathogen.
Gonococcal and bacterial inflammation
In 40% of cases, is monotherapy with cephalosporin antibiotics. Chronic process is more often assigned to the tetracycline group. Complicated gonorrheal urethritis in men is treated by a combination of several groups of drugs.
Antibiotic therapy requires preventive reception antimycotic drugs. Mandatory assigned immunomodulators and vitamins.
To control the efficiency of the treatment is necessary on three occasions, with a certain time interval of the test to identify the gonococcus.
To treat this kind of applies a time-tested course taking metronidazole or once the maximum dose. Shows the decision of immunostimulatory drugs and fortified supplements.
The incidence of chlamydia
How to treat chlamydial infection is determined by the doctor according to the result of the bacterial analysis. The best result gives the course of treatment and an antibiotic of the tetracycline group. In relation to antibacterial prescribed hormonal therapy.
The finding in the urethra in men is a fungal infection and requires antifungal therapy in the form of tablets. Topically used antifungal ointment. Great importance is attached to the immunostimulatory therapy.
The most frequent infection by herpes simplex virus 1 and type 2. In this case, the treatment of urethritis in men drugs antiviral action. There is an opinion completely cure herpes virus is not possible, but is it possible to get the remission stable.
Inflammation of etiology unknown
30 – 40% of cases, the agent infection cannot be established, however, in the course of antibacterial therapy gives good results. How to cure urethritis in men, without any diagnosis? Named for the broad spectrum antibiotics of different groups. In addition he introduced antifungal and tonic. The scheme may change at the discretion of the attending physician.
Therapy inflammation of the bladder
The infectious process often extends beyond the urethra, in order to be considered as a treatment of cystitis in conjunction with the urethritis. It becomes one of the main pathogens of the microflora and bacterial. His treatment of trust in the macrolide antibiotics, ftorhinolon or tetracycline. In addition to being assigned to prophylactic therapy antifungal and to take a multivitamin.
Inflammation of the urethra in children
In children, the main causative agent of disease is E. coli. Urethritis occurs in boys more often than girls, due to the development of phimosis and, as a consequence, the creation of favourable environment for the growth of pathogenic flora.
The child becomes restless, he was tormented by the itching, pain when urinating. It can be whitish with a mixture of pus high. The urine becomes cloudy with blood. Treatment of urethritis in men and treatment in children is antibiotics, but, unlike adults, selection of media for a child is conducted with more care, by focusing on the age group.
Complications and forecasts
In a man sense to go to the doctor with a similar problem a shame, but sooner or later is not the proper treatment threatens many complications. The infection can spread to surrounding organs, causing cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis. The result is a violation of the sexual functions and infertility.
Chlamydial infection is manifested by the subsequent defeat of the whole fabric of systematic and conjunctivitis. Purulent urethritis leads to structural changes of the membrane lining of the urinary canal expansion and the narrowing of the light.
When performed correctly, the treatment can quickly and completely get rid of the problem, the prognosis in this case is favorable.
Measures of prevention
Knowing the causes of urethritis, and that it is easy to determine the preventive measures:
- the deletion of doubtful sex;
- the use of the condom as protection;
- to adhere to the rules of hygiene;
- attentive to their health, in case of doubtful symptoms, immediately consult a doctor;
- in the period of the greatest psycho – physical stress to take vitamin complex;
- to prevent hypothermia;
- follow a balanced diet, not getting involved with harmful products;
- to strengthen the immune system.
Acute inflammation brings a great amount of unpleasant symptoms, but unkempt, not taken care of, the process is much much worse than the consequences in the long term. Approximately 40% of men of retirement age suffer from prostatitis, and this is a direct consequence of the chronic urethritis. The sad statistics, because the inflammation of the urinary channel is completely treatable with all the recommendations.